Parenteral Insulins Insulin preparations are classified into 3 groups based on promptness, duration, and intensity of action following subcutaneous administration. These classifications are rapid- (regular), intermediate- ( NPH ), or long-acting. Maintenance doses are given subcutaneous and must be individualized by monitoring patients closely. Consider following dosage guidelines.
Children and Adults:Subcutaneous 0.5 to 1 units/kg/day. Adjust doses to achieve premeal and bedtime blood glucose levels of 80 to 140 mg/dL (children younger than 5 yr of age, 100 to 200 mg/dL).
Severe Ketoacidosis or Diabetic ComaSubcutaneous 0.8 to 1.2 units/kg/day. Regular insulin is given IV or IM.
Dose Adjustments Titrate all insulin products to optimal dosage based on blood glucose monitoring results.
Insulin and its analogs lower blood glucose levels by stimulating peripheral glucose uptake, especially by skeletal muscle and fat, and by inhibiting hepatic glucose production. Insulin inhibits lipolysis, proteolysis, and enhances protein synthesis.