Mechanism is unknown, but may involve subunit modulation of the GABAA receptor chloride channel macromolecular complex.
Use Cautiously in:
CV: Palpitation (2%); BP increased (1%).
CNS: Headache (19%); somnolence (15%); dizziness (12%); drowsiness (8%); hallucinations (4%); anxiety, disorientation, drugged feeling, fatigue, lethargy, memory disorders (3%); balance disorder, depression, disturbance in attention, hypoesthesia, light-headedness, psychomotor retardation (2%); asthenia, ataxia, confusion, euphoria, insomnia (more than 1%); abnormal dreams, amnesia, binge eating, depersonalization, disinhibition, mood swings, nervousness, paresthesia, sleep disorder, stress symptoms (1%).
DERM: Rash (2%); skin wrinkling, urticaria (1%).
EENT: Visual disturbance (3%); eye redness, vision blurred (2%); abnormal vision, diplopia (more than 1%); altered depth perception, asthenopia, labyrinthitis, rhinitis, throat irritation, tinnitus (1%).
GI: Nausea (7%); diarrhea, dry mouth (3%); abdominal pain, constipation (2%); dyspepsia, hiccup (more than 1%); abdominal discomfort/tenderness, anorexia, appetite disorder, frequent bowel movements, gastroenteritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, vomiting (1%).
GU: UTI (2%); menorrhagia (1%).
MUSC: Myalgia (7%); arthralgia, back pain (4%).
RESP: Upper respiratory tract infection (5%); sinusitis (4%); pharyngitis (3%).
OTHER: Allergy (4%); influenza (3%); influenza-like symptoms (2%); body temperature increase, chest discomfort, chest pain, contusion, infection, neck pain (1%).
Azole antifungal agents (eg, itraconazole, voriconazole), sertraline
Zolpidem plasma levels may be increased.
CNS depressants (eg, alcohol)
Possible additive or potentiation of CNS depressant effects.
May reverse the sedative/hypnotic effects of zolpidem.
Rifamycins (eg, rifampin)
Zolpidem plasma levels may be reduced, decreasing the pharmacologic effects.
Possible severe sedation and respiratory depression.
Therapeutic Classification: sedative/hypnotics
Absorption: Rapidly absorbed following oral administration. Controlled release formulation releases 10 mg immediately, then another 2.5 mg later.
Distribution: Minimal amounts enter breast milk; remainder of distribution not known.
Metabolism/Excretion: Converted to inactive metabolites, which are excreted by the kidneys.
Half-life: 2.5–2.6 hr (increased in geriatric patients and patients with hepatic impairment).
*Food delays peak levels and effects
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